World Grain - May 2018 - 34
FEATURE: CIABATTA: A CLASSIC ITALIAN BREAD
the proportion of yeast and the climate in the fermentation room. This step in the process may be extended to
several hours, depending on conditions at the bakery.
GENTLE PROCESSING OF THE DOUGH
Processing of the dough demands gentle handling. As
soon as the dough is pressed, stretched or worked too
hard, the gas bubbles that are indispensable for the
characteristic texture are expelled.
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drawn out carefully to a thickness of about one centimeter and cut into strips. The separate portions are
Because of the soft dough process, the dough porWLRQVÀDWWHQVOLJKWO\GXULQJWKHLQGLYLGXDOSURR¿QJWLPH
of no more than one hour. But this effect is intentional
and contributes to the typical shape of the product. The
dough portions are baked with steam at 250° C to 260°
C. Baking time is about 20 minutes, with declining heat.
In spite of the soft dough process, it is quite possible
to produce ciabatta industrially if suitable equipment
is available, with special dough dividers and handling
plant. Even doughs with a yield of over 180% can now
be processed, cut and portioned gently with machinery.
But in practice, faults occur again and again. Sometimes
EDNHULHVGRQRWKDYHRSWLPXPÀRXUTXDOLWLHVWUDLQHGSHUsonnel or suitable equipment. The following is an overview of the most common problems encountered in the
production of ciabatta and possible ways of solving them.
Problem: Poor dough stability.
Possible cause: Weak gluten.
Solution: Add ascorbic acid (e.g. ELCO) and/or glucose oxidase (e.g. Alphamalt Gloxy 13082).
Ciabatta: Fantastic achievement of a
Although details of the origins of ciabatta are not known for certain, the history of the Italian speciality is inseparably bound up with the name Arnaldo
Cavallari. To the owner of Molini Adriesi, a mill in the town of Adria near
Venice, it was a thorn in the flesh that Italian consumers were increasingly
buying French baguettes and leaving the local products on the shelves.
To put a stop to this trend, Arnaldo Cavallari resolved to develop an
Italian counterpart to the French baguette together with Francesco Favaron, a baker from Verona. After numerous experiments, the two men
created what was to become the big hit: a coarse-textured, aromatic
bread made from high-mineral flour. In no time at all, the rustic oblong
"ciabatta" not only captured the local markets, it also found enthusiastic
buyers beyond the borders of Italy.
characteristic of ciabatta.
Possible cause:*OXWHQWRR¿UP³EXFN\´WRRLQWHQsive processing.
Solution: Add hemicellulase (e.g. Alphamalt H) or
cysteine (EMCEsoft P) to increase the extensibility of
the dough. Gentle handling.
Problem: Water absorption and dough yield too low.
Possible cause/RZSURWHLQFRQWHQWRIWKHÀRXULQadequate starch damage.
Solution: &RPSHQVDWH IRU GH¿FLHQFLHV LQ WKH ÀRXU
with enzymatic compounds such as EMCEgluten
Enhancer or EMCEbest WA Pure. Alternatively, increase the gluten content by adding vital wheat gluten
(0&(YLW & LQFUHDVH WKH VWDUFK GDPDJH E\ UDLVLQJ
Problem: Sticky doughs.
Possible causes: :HDN ÀRXU JOXWHQ XQDEOH WR UHtain water. Sometimes also release of water through
Solution: Adjust mixing time. Increase water retention capacity, e.g. with enzymatic agents (e.g. Alphamalt
Gloxy 13082, Alphamalt TTC), possibly in combination
Problem: Poor oven rise.
Solution: Enhance oven rise with amylases (e.g.
Alphamalt A or hemicellulases Alphamalt H).
Possible causes: Dough process without sponge or
Solution: Use an indirect dough process or add dried
sourdough (e.g. EMCEdo SR/SW).
Problem: Crust or crumb too light in color.
Solution: 8VH ÀRXUV ZLWK D KLJKHU OHYHO RI H[WUDFWLRQ$GGXSWRU\HÀRXU$GGHQ]\PHLQDFWLYDWHG
PDOW H[WUDFW HJ (0&(PDOW WR HQKDQFH ÀDYRU
Martina Mollenhauer is a product manager with Mühlenchemie.
She may be contacted at email@example.com.
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May 2018 / World Grain / www.World-Grain.com