World Grain - November 2019 - 48

FEATURE: ALLERGEN AND MYCOTOXIN DETECTION

EnviroLogix
offers several
solutions for
detecting
mycotoxins.
Photo courtesy
of EnviroLogix.

48

challenge bakery and snack food manufacturers face,
VSHFL¿FDOO\FRPPRGLW\FRPPLQJOLQJ0DQ\ÀRXULQJUHdients are grown on the same farms as allergenic ingredients; they may be harvested at the same time, with shared
HTXLSPHQWDQGVWRUHGLQWKHVDPHELQV8QIRUWXQDWHO\LW
is nearly impossible to separate allergenic from non-alOHUJHQLFIRRGVDWWKHDJULFXOWXUDOOHYHO3HDQXWVLQZKHDW
ÀRXUVR\LQZKHDWÀRXUVR\LQFRUQDQGZKHDWLQRDWV
are just a few examples of food allergen cross-contamiQDWLRQULVNV
Arthur Tatham, professor in Food Science and
1XWULWLRQ&DUGL൵0HWURSROLWDQ8QLYHUVLW\8.VDLGWKDW
as patterns of cereal consumption change, so do the patWHUQVRIDOOHUJ\DQGLQWROHUDQFH
"For example, increasing wheat consumption in Eastern
Asia has led to a rise in wheat-related intolerances and alOHUJLHVLQZKHDWFRQVXPLQJSRSXODWLRQV´KHVDLG
 'HWHFWLRQ DQG TXDQWL¿FDWLRQ PHWKRGV DUH QHFHVVDU\
not only to comply with food labeling requirements, but
also to prevent costly product recalls, improve consumHU SURWHFWLRQ HQVXUH FRQVXPHU FRQ¿GHQFH DQG EUDQG
QDPHSURWHFWLRQ
Several technical approaches for the detection of allerJHQVLQFHUHDOVDUHDYDLODEOH7KHPHWKRGVHPSOR\HGHLther target the allergen itself (protein or glycoprotein) or a
PDUNHUVSHFL¿FSURWHLQRU'1$IUDJPHQWWKDWLQGLFDWHV
WKHSUHVHQFHRIWKHR൵HQGLQJIRRG'HWHFWLRQRIWKHDOOHUgen is not always feasible since this often may be present
in trace amounts, may vary in abundance between culti-

YDUVRUPD\EHPDVNHGE\WKHIRRGPDWUL[0RUHRYHUWKH
VHQVLWLYLW\RIWKHPHWKRGXWLOL]HGPD\LQÀXHQFHGHWHFWLRQ
3RO\PHUDVHFKDLQUHDFWLRQ3&5PHWKRGVLVWKHGRPinant DNA-based technique used for the detection of
allergenic ingredients and the only DNA-based method
IRUZKLFKFRPPHUFLDOWHVWNLWVDUHDYDLODEOH3&5LVD
relatively fast and inexpensive method for identifying
'1$,WLVDQDOWHUQDWLYHPHWKRGWR(/,6$WKDWLVURXWLQHO\XVHGIRUWKHLGHQWL¿FDWLRQDQGTXDQWL¿FDWLRQUHDO
WLPH3&5RIJHQHWLFDOO\PRGL¿HGRUJDQLVPVSDWKRJHQV
DQGIRRGUHODWHGSODQWDQGDQLPDOVSHFLHV3&5DOVRKDV
been used in breeding programs for the detection and
negative selection of wheat cultivars with poor breadPDNLQJTXDOLW\GHPRQVWUDWLQJWKDWLWFDQEHDQH൶FLHQW
alternative to standard procedures of separation for early
screening of useful wheat genotypes with good breadPDNLQJTXDOLW\
7KH (Q]\PH/LQNHG ,PPXQRVRUEHQW$VVD\ (/,6$
method uses antibody reagents developed to either speFL¿FDOOHUJHQVRUSURWHLQIUDFWLRQVIURPDOOHUJHQLFIRRGV
7KH(/,6$WHFKQLTXHLVWKHPRVWFRPPRQPHWKRGXVHG
in food analysis to detect and quantify allergens due to
its high precision, simple handling, and good potential for
VWDQGDUGL]DWLRQ7KHPRVWIUHTXHQWPHWKRGIRUWKHDQDO\sis of gluten in food products for the determination of gluWHQLQWKHPLOOLJUDPNLORJUDPUDQJHLVEDVHGRQ(/,6$,W
is generally an accurate test and is considered highly senVLWLYHDQGVSHFL¿FDFFXUDWHDQGFRPSDUHVIDYRUDEO\ZLWK
other methods used for the detection of substances in the
ERG\2QHRIWKHJUHDWHVWDGYDQWDJHVRIWKH(/,6$WHVWLV
WKHDELOLW\WRREWDLQTXLFNDQGDFFXUDWHUHVXOWV$FFRUGLQJ
WR5RPHU/DEV(/,6$LVWKHPRVWZLGHO\DSSOLHGPHWKRGIRUWKHGHWHFWLRQDQGTXDQWL¿FDWLRQRIIRRGDOOHUJHQV
However, although many samples can be analyzed at the
same time, these samples can only be tested for one anaO\WH )XUWKHUPRUH LQ KLJKO\ SURFHVVHG IRRGV WKH\ PD\
JLYHIDOVHQHJDWLYHUHVXOWVRUUHGXFHGTXDQWL¿FDWLRQV
A third technique has been applied to analysis of allerJHQVLQIRRGVXVLQJTXDQWLWDWLYHPDVVVSHFWURPHWULF06
PHWKRGV$FFRUGLQJWR5RPHU/DEVPDVVVSHFWURPHWU\
is considered the allergen testing method having the most
potential for future improvements due to its outstanding
reliability, sensitivity, and the potential to perform multiDOOHUJHQDQDO\VLV+RZHYHULWQRWHGWKDWPDVVVSHFWURPetry needs highly skilled personnel, and the initial investPHQWFRVWVDUHKLJKGXHWRWKHH[SHQVLYHLQVWUXPHQWDWLRQ
Furthermore, the time to result will always be much lonJHUWKDQIRULPPXQRPHWKRGV
/DWHUDOÀRZGHYLFHVRUVWULSWHVWVDUHRWKHUWHFKQLTXHV
WR GHWHUPLQH DOOHUJHQV LQ IRRGV 7KH\ DUH LQH[SHQVLYH
easy to use, do not require laboratory equipment, and
JLYHUHVXOWVXVXDOO\LQDIHZPLQXWHV+RZHYHUPRVWVWULS
tests are only qualitative and rely on antibodies as recRJQLWLRQHOHPHQWV7KHUHIRUHWKH\VX൵HUIURPWKHVDPH
November 2019 / World Grain / www.World-Grain.com


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World Grain - November 2019

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