World Grain - December 2019 - 22

TECHNICAL PROFILE: SIMPLE BUT NOT ORDINARY

tato, kebab or minced lamb, for example, depending on
WKHUHFLSH$VD¿QJHUIRRGVLJDUDE|UH÷L²GHHSIULHG
\XINDVKHHWV¿OOHGZLWKIHWDFKHHVHDQGSDUVOH\LQWKH
shape of a cigar - are popular.
7RHQVXUHWKHVHSURGXFWVDUHHDV\WR¿OOIROGRUUROO
the dough sheets are baked softer and spread additionally with oil or margarine.

meters. But true yufka artists attempt diameters of up
to 70 centimeters.
The dough is not usually baked in an oven but on
a "sac" - a large, slightly convex hotplate that traditionally is heated with wood and coal. Recently, gas¿UHGVDFVWRYHVDUHEHLQJXVHGWREDNHWKHGRXJK6NLOO
is needed in working with the cast iron, too. In order
to bake the dough evenly, the delicate sheet must be
turned around and over constantly with a long wooden
rod. Within a few minutes, a delicious bread speciality with the characteristic blisters and aromatic brown
specks appears on the scorching hot plate.

THE IMPORTANCE OF FRESHNESS
Freshness is the most important quality criterion for
yufka. The 80 million Turks prefer to buy it from one of
the countless yufkacis - small, family-owned bakeries
specializing in the production of yufka. From early in
WKHPRUQLQJWKHVKRSVR൵HUPRXQWDLQVRIIUHVKO\EDNHG FLOUR STANDARDIZATION
ÀDWEUHDGWKDWWHPSWFXVWRPHUVLQWRWKHLUHVWDEOLVKPHQWV 7KHTXDOLW\RI\XINDGHSHQGVYHU\PXFKRQWKHÀRXU
used as well as the manual skill of the baker. The
doughs must have high extensibility and must neither
dry out nor tear or stick.
7KHIROORZLQJÀRXUTXDOLW\SDUDPHWHUVDUHLGHDOIRU
the production of yufka:

In 2016, UNESCO paid tribute
to this traditional practice
by adding yufka into the
list of "Intangible Cultural
Heritage of Humanity."

Property

Dimension

Values

Moisture

%

≤ 14.5

Protein

%

12.5 - 13.0

Wet gluten

%

30 - 35

Sedimentation

ml

35 - 37

Consumers who don't have time to buy food daily
Ash content
%
55 - 65
stock up on wrapped, industrially baked yufka from a
Extensibility (135 min)
mm
≥ 160
VXSHUPDUNHW ,Q DGGLWLRQ LW LV SRVVLEOH WR ¿QG LQGXVWater absorption
%
≥ 60
trially baked yufka bread in the markets. Yufka bread
LVDEHWWHUFRRNHGSURGXFWWKDQE|UHNOLN¶\XIND7KHVH
products then must be sprinkled with a little water beIn practice, however, wheat lots with these values
fore use to restore their soft, succulent consistency.
are not always available. In the artisan sector, Turkish
EDNHUV WU\ WR FRPSHQVDWH IRU GH¿FLHQFLHV LQ WKH UDZ
THE ART OF MAKING YUFKA
material by making manual adjustments to the prepaWhether from an artisan bakery or a bread factory, the ration of the dough. But in industrial production, the
basic recipe for yufka is simple. As a rule, it consists bakeries are much more dependent on standardized
MXVWRIZKHDWÀRXUWRVDOWDQGZDWHU
ÀRXUV ZLWK GH¿QHG EDNLQJ SURSHUWLHV 7KHUHIRUH
7KHGRXJKLV¿UVWPL[HGWKHQVKDSHGLQWROLWWOHEDOOV in the milling and baking industries, the use of enZHLJKLQJWRJUDPVDIWHUDUHVWLQJWLPHRIDERXW zymes and additives is becoming increasingly comDQKRXU$IWHUSURR¿QJIRUDURXQGPLQXWHVWKHPRVW PRQ %\ VSHFL¿FDOO\ XSJUDGLQJ WKH UDZ PDWHULDO LW
important utensil in manual production comes into use LV SRVVLEOH WR SURGXFH WDLORUPDGH ÀRXUV WKDW ERWK
- the oklava, a long rolling pin about as thick as a LPSURYHWKHTXDOLW\RIWKH¿QLVKHGSURGXFWDQGVLP¿QJHU:LWKWKLVWKHVKHHWRIGRXJKLV¿UVWUROOHGRXW plify handling of the dough. Flour improvers specially
ÀDWOLNHDVWUXGHOGRXJKRQDURXQGZRRGHQWDEOHDQG GHVLJQHGIRUWKHSURGXFWLRQRIÀDWEUHDGLQFUHDVHWKH
GXVWHGZLWKÀRXUDJDLQDQGDJDLQ7KHQFRPHVWKH¿Q- elasticity of the dough, intensify browning and imishing touch: with great care and dexterity, the sheet of prove machinability.
dough is rolled back and forth around the rolling pin.
The following is an overview of the problems most
6LQFHWKHRNODYDLVSODFHGLQDGL൵HUHQWSRVLWLRQHDFK often encountered in the production of yufka, and posWLPHDQGWKHSUHVVXUHLVLQFUHDVHGFRQWLQXRXVO\WKH¿- sible approaches to a solution:
nal result is a paper-thin dough structure that is nevertheless regular and tear-resistant.
Problem: 7KH ÀDW EUHDG GRHV QRW DFKLHYH WKH UH7KHVWDQGDUGVL]HRI\XINDLVDERXWWRFHQWL- quired radius; the dough springs back.
22

December 2019 / World Grain / www.World-Grain.com


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World Grain - December 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of World Grain - December 2019

World Grain - December 2019
Contents
FROM THE EDITOR - Addressing the climate change enigma
CALENDAR OF EVENTS
VICTAM Asia combining event with VIV Health & Nutrition
News Review - ADM opens new Vietnam feed facility
COFCO appoints new company chairman
Miller Milling elevates Mitani to president, CEO
ADM advances strategic plan in face of tough external environment
LDC makes executive leadership changes
Bunge battling through difficult environment in ag business
Ardent Mills names new VP of operations
GrainGrowers appoints new leadership
GRAIN MARKET REVIEW - OILSEEDS
COUNTRY FOCUS - TURKEY
TECHNICAL PROFILE: SIMPLE BUT NOT ORDINARY
FEATURE: BUILT FROM SCRATCH, WITH ‘NO COMPROMISES'
Seaboard continues to expand in Africa
FEATURE: IAOM MEA CELEBRATES 30 YEARS
FEATURE: TOO MUCH GRAIN, TOO LITTLE DEMAND
FEED QUARTERLY - AFIA's new leader sees opportunities in challenges
IPPE to examine sustainability, disease
When it’s time to build…
MITIGATING mycotoxins in feed
SUPPLIER NEWS
WORLD GRAIN ARCHIVE
ADVERTISER INDEX
World Grain - December 2019 - World Grain - December 2019
World Grain - December 2019 - World Grain - December 2019
World Grain - December 2019 - 2
World Grain - December 2019 - 3
World Grain - December 2019 - 4
World Grain - December 2019 - Contents
World Grain - December 2019 - FROM THE EDITOR - Addressing the climate change enigma
World Grain - December 2019 - 7
World Grain - December 2019 - VICTAM Asia combining event with VIV Health & Nutrition
World Grain - December 2019 - Miller Milling elevates Mitani to president, CEO
World Grain - December 2019 - ADM advances strategic plan in face of tough external environment
World Grain - December 2019 - LDC makes executive leadership changes
World Grain - December 2019 - Bunge battling through difficult environment in ag business
World Grain - December 2019 - GrainGrowers appoints new leadership
World Grain - December 2019 - GRAIN MARKET REVIEW - OILSEEDS
World Grain - December 2019 - 15
World Grain - December 2019 - COUNTRY FOCUS - TURKEY
World Grain - December 2019 - 17
World Grain - December 2019 - 18
World Grain - December 2019 - 19
World Grain - December 2019 - TECHNICAL PROFILE: SIMPLE BUT NOT ORDINARY
World Grain - December 2019 - 21
World Grain - December 2019 - 22
World Grain - December 2019 - 23
World Grain - December 2019 - Seaboard continues to expand in Africa
World Grain - December 2019 - 25
World Grain - December 2019 - 26
World Grain - December 2019 - 27
World Grain - December 2019 - 28
World Grain - December 2019 - 29
World Grain - December 2019 - 30
World Grain - December 2019 - 31
World Grain - December 2019 - FEATURE: IAOM MEA CELEBRATES 30 YEARS
World Grain - December 2019 - 33
World Grain - December 2019 - 34
World Grain - December 2019 - 35
World Grain - December 2019 - 36
World Grain - December 2019 - 37
World Grain - December 2019 - 38
World Grain - December 2019 - 39
World Grain - December 2019 - FEATURE: TOO MUCH GRAIN, TOO LITTLE DEMAND
World Grain - December 2019 - 41
World Grain - December 2019 - 42
World Grain - December 2019 - 43
World Grain - December 2019 - 44
World Grain - December 2019 - 45
World Grain - December 2019 - FEED QUARTERLY - AFIA's new leader sees opportunities in challenges
World Grain - December 2019 - 47
World Grain - December 2019 - 48
World Grain - December 2019 - 49
World Grain - December 2019 - 50
World Grain - December 2019 - 51
World Grain - December 2019 - IPPE to examine sustainability, disease
World Grain - December 2019 - 53
World Grain - December 2019 - 54
World Grain - December 2019 - 55
World Grain - December 2019 - When it’s time to build…
World Grain - December 2019 - 57
World Grain - December 2019 - 58
World Grain - December 2019 - 59
World Grain - December 2019 - 60
World Grain - December 2019 - 61
World Grain - December 2019 - 62
World Grain - December 2019 - 63
World Grain - December 2019 - MITIGATING mycotoxins in feed
World Grain - December 2019 - 65
World Grain - December 2019 - 66
World Grain - December 2019 - 67
World Grain - December 2019 - 68
World Grain - December 2019 - 69
World Grain - December 2019 - SUPPLIER NEWS
World Grain - December 2019 - 71
World Grain - December 2019 - 72
World Grain - December 2019 - WORLD GRAIN ARCHIVE
World Grain - December 2019 - ADVERTISER INDEX
World Grain - December 2019 - 75
World Grain - December 2019 - 76
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