World Grain - November 2020 - 53

and/or heat treatment may be employed
where infestation or the establishment
of an active pest breeding population is
evident.
Birds, rodents and insects, whether
alive or dead, in whole or in part, along
with some life process byproducts, including solid excreta, can be removed to
some degree using typical grain cleaning principles. These readily identified
pests also host and transport smaller
insects such as mites and lice in addition to microbial contamination, including non-pathogens and pathogen, yeast,
molds, and fungi. The presence of microbial contamination carried on the intruding pests or in excreta, urine or shed
body features such as feathers, hair,
dander or cast skin may well contribute
to increased microbial contamination of
wheat already subject to contamination
during field growth and harvesting. Raw
grain is receiving significant attention

relative to fungal contamination and
mycotoxin presence. However, less attention is being given to other microbial
and particularly pathogen issues.
PROPER DESIGN IS HELPFUL
The design and operation of grain handling and processing systems had seen
much improvement in recent years, including designs to exclude pests and to
make food contact surfaces more accessible for cleaning. Elimination of static
product within the process and pieces
of equipment has been of great benefit.
More extensive use of aspiration and
dust control has transformed mills from
having dirty cleaning house operations
alongside clean milling operations.
In recent years, some milling machines such as sifters have been redesigned to prevent condensation and
mold development. While more intensive scouring is reported to reduce

microbial presence in wheat cleaning,
equipment has not yet been developed
to remove extraneous material that may
be a source of microbial contamination
lodged in the crease of some grains, especially wheat. The inability to address
the wheat kernel crease is an important
issue as data suggests a significant proportion of microbiological activity is associated with the bran coat.
Table 1 (page 52) shows the microbiological analysis of mill feed and straight
grade flour milled from commercially
cleaned wheat, which suggest bran carries a significant proportion of wheat
kernel microbial contamination. Not all
grain milling sites enjoy the benefit of
improved system and equipment design
available in recent years.
Still today, many grain-based processing systems are their own worst source
of potential pathogen contamination due
the presence of pathogens in raw mate-

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World Grain - November 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of World Grain - November 2020

World Grain - November 2020 - 1
World Grain - November 2020 - 1
World Grain - November 2020 - 2
World Grain - November 2020 - 3
World Grain - November 2020 - 4
World Grain - November 2020 - 5
World Grain - November 2020 - 6
World Grain - November 2020 - 7
World Grain - November 2020 - 8
World Grain - November 2020 - 9
World Grain - November 2020 - 10
World Grain - November 2020 - 11
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World Grain - November 2020 - 16
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World Grain - November 2020 - 18
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World Grain - November 2020 - 20
World Grain - November 2020 - 21
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http://digital.world-grain.com/sosland/wg/2015_06_01
http://digital.world-grain.com/sosland/wg/2015_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/wg/2015_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/wg/2015_03_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/wg/2015_02_01
http://digital.world-grain.com/sosland/wg/2015_01_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/wg/2014_12_01
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/wg/2013_12_01
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