World Grain - February 2021 - 24

FEATURE: BAKING WITH RYE FLOUR IN RUSSIA

the characteristic Borodinski taste
experience are ground coriander
and sometimes a little caraway
seed. Every bakery swears by its
own method and steers the individual taste and consistency of the
loaves through the choice of raw
materials and with different temperatures and fermentation times.
Borodinski Chleb was originally
made entirely with rye flour. But
since Russian consumers now prefer a softer, lighter crumb, it has
become usual to add 20% to 30%
wheat flour.
The following is a basic recipe
for Borodinski Chleb
Scald/hot soaker
Rye flour	
1.500 kg
EMCEmaltex 34000	 0.300 kg
Coriander, ground	
0.030 kg
Water (90 °C)	
4.500 kg
Hot soaker	
6.330 kg
Resting time: 3-4 hours

Dough
Hot soaker	
6.330 kg
Rye flour	
5.500 kg
Basic sour
(dough yield 160 %)	 2.400 kg
Ready-to-use sour 	
0.400 kg
Wheat flour	
1.500 kg
TopBake Roggenmischbrot
HB	
0.700 kg
Sugar	
0.300 kg
Salt	
0.200 kg
Yeast	
0.100 kg
Water, ca.	
3.800 kg
Dough weight	
21.230 kg
All rye doughs must be mixed
with a low energy input. Because
of the intensive pre-swelling of the
sourdough and hot soaker, the production of Borodinski Chleb only
requires a mixing time of 5 to 7 minutes at a slow speed.
After a rest of at least 30 minutes,
dough portions of 1.10 kg are mea-

sured off, rounded and molded and
laid in greased baking tins. For the
characteristic finish, the surface is
sprinkled lavishly with coriander
seeds.
When fully proofed, the loaves
are placed in the oven with steam at
a temperature of 250 °C; a few minutes later, the steam is cut off.
The loaves are baked for about an
hour, with the temperature falling to
200 °C.
Typical faults in rye loaves
Although Russia has a long tradition of handling rye flours, various
faults may occur in the production
of rye and mixed rye loaves. The
cause is usually found to lie in incorrect preparation of the flour or
quality fluctuations. The following
is a brief overview of the most common problems and possible ways of
solving them.

Treading new paths in the treatment of rye flour
Rye flour and sourdough - for many bakers,
these two concepts are inseparable. It is still
widely believed that rye must be acidified during preparation of the dough because of the
high level of enzymes naturally present in the
flour. If the enzymatic activity were not curbed
by lowering the pH, the result would be a
massive breakdown of the starch molecules,
causing inadequate water binding and a weak
dough structure.
But the fact is that the hybrid varieties grown
nowadays are not only more resistant to disease
and capable of a higher yield, they also have a
much lower enzyme content than earlier varieties. Therefore, increasing the acidity of the rye
dough is no longer seen as irrevocable dogma.
The effects of breeding are reflected in the
Amylogram values and Falling Numbers.
Whereas, for example, the Falling Numbers of
rye flours used often to be between 60 and 80
seconds, values above 150 seconds are now by
no means unusual.
Where bread baking is concerned, the reduction of the amylases intrinsic to the flour cuts
down the work involved enormously. As a rule,

24	

WG_Feb21.indb 24

a time-consuming sourdough process is no longer necessary to achieve good processability of
the rye flour.
On the other hand, low-enzyme rye flours
without acidification have certain drawbacks.
The loaves have a low volume, a dry-baking
crumb, and a shorter shelf life.
To prevent these undesirable effects and nevertheless rationalize the production method, a
practical alternative to the sourdough process
is treatment of the flour with enzymes. For the
production of bread with a high proportion of
rye, Mühlenchemie offers a toolbox with various
systems of innovative agents. One effective solution is Deltamalt. This novel fungal amylase
makes it possible to control the starch degradation, pasting and swelling processes of the
protein and pentosan complexes so specifically
that even rye loaves without sourdough are
pleasantly succulent and have good elasticity
and a long shelf life.
Since Deltamalt also lowers the Falling Number, this enzyme system further enables mills to
adjust the rheological quality parameters of rye
flour to their customers' requirements.

February 2021 / World Grain / World-Grain.com

2/12/2021 8:30:38 AM


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World Grain - February 2021

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