World Grain - March 2021 - 24

FEATURE: WHEAT MILLING IN SOUTH AFRICA

South Africa's bakers
face salt-reduction directive
Salt is an important flavor carrier in food.
However, since an excessive intake of sodium chloride (NaCl) can lead to serious
cardiovascular and vascular diseases, the
South African National Department of
Health has set itself the goal of limiting the
average salt consumption of the population
to 5 grams per day. As a consequence, 100
grams of bread may only contain 3.8 grams
of salt since 2019.
For bakeries, especially, these regulations
pose a challenge. The addition of table salt
is not just a matter of taste - it also plays
an important role in stabilizing the gluten
network. A low salt dosage can have a detrimental effect on fermentation tolerance
and the texture and shred of the loaf porosity. Since the activity of the yeast and also
the oven rise and baked volume increase
when the salt content is reduced, there is in
principle a risk that the structure of low-sodium doughs will collapse toward the end
of proofing.
Mühlenchemie, in cooperation with
its sister companies DeutscheBack and
SternEnzym, has developed a functional
solution that effectively improves the
rheology of the dough and the appearance and texture of low-salt baked foods.
Saltase is a highly effective enzyme system specifically designed to maintain the
dough structure and machinability. Baking
trials with white bread at the company's
Stern Technology Center showed that
40% of the salt can be replaced by Saltase without any loss of quality in terms of
volume or crumb structure.
While pure Saltase enzymes focus exclusively on technological aspects, the Saltase
Plus specification also compensates for the
taste disadvantages of a salt-reduced recipe. A balanced combination of potassium
chloride and yeast extract gives the low-salt
baked foods a pleasant saltiness without a
bitter aftertaste.
In general, a gradual one-to-one replacement of salt with Saltase is recommended.
The more cautiously the changeover to lower-sodium baked foods is made, the greater
is the acceptance by customers.
24

taled 1.535 million tonnes. Wheat production in Western Cape in
2019-20 was 650,000 tonnes, in Free State 326,000 tonnes and in
Northern Cape 265,000 tonnes.
A comprehensive quality report on the annual harvest is provided by the Southern African Grain Laboratory NPC (SAGL).
7KHWDEOHEHORZSUHVHQWVDQRYHUYLHZRIWKHDYHUDJHÀRXUTXDOLW\
of the 2019-20 crop.
The 333 representative crop samples of the 2019-20 season
ZHUH FODVVL¿HG DV IROORZV  ZHUH JUDGHG 6XSHU *UDGH %6
ZHUHJUDGHG%ZHUHJUDGHG%ZHUHJUDGHG%
DQGZHUHJUDGHG&ODVV2WKHU:KHDW6XSHU*UDGH%6UHTXLUHVDPLQLPXPSURWHLQFRQWHQWRIPRLVWXUHEDVLV
Although the current crop is of good quality, the quantity is by
QRPHDQVVX൶FLHQWWRPHHWWKHVWHDGLO\JURZLQJGHPDQGRI6RXWK
African consumers for baked foods, pizza and pasta.
As a result, the milling industry relies on imports. According
to SAGL, the amount of wheat imported for local consumption
GXULQJ WKH  VHDVRQ ZDV  WRQQHV LQFOXGLQJ LPports up to July 2020). The majority of this wheat originated in the
Russian Federation, Poland, Germany or Lithuania.
As a rule, South African mills mix imported wheat with domestic batches. The main objective is standardization, since consistent,
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Three basic flour types
7KH 6RXWK $IULFDQ PLOOV SURYLGH WKUHH EDVLF W\SHV RI ÀRXU IRU
EDNHGIRRGVZKLWHEUHDGÀRXUFDNHÀRXUDQGEURZQEUHDGÀRXU
&DNHÀRXULVDORZH[WUDFWLRQÀRXUZLWKD¿QHWH[WXUHDQGDQDVK
YDOXHRIDSSUR[LPDWHO\,WLVXVHGSULPDULO\IRUSX൵SDVWU\
applications, cakes, scones, tarts and biscuits.
:KLWH EUHDG ÀRXU LV D EUHDGPDNLQJ ÀRXU ZLWK D PDUJLQDOO\
KLJKHUH[WUDFWLRQWKDQFDNHÀRXUDQGDQDVKFRQWHQWRIDSSUR[LPDWHO\,WLVPRVWO\XVHGLQWKHSURGXFWLRQRIZKLWHEUHDG
and buns, since they require a lighter color, strong protein and considerable volume.
%URZQEUHDGÀRXULVDEUHDGPDNLQJÀRXUZLWKDPD[LPXPDVK
FRQWHQWEHWZHHQDQGWRZKLFKEHWZHHQDQG
ZKHDWEUDQLVDGGHG7KHZKROHZKHDWÀRXU³SURSHU´FRQWDLQVDOO
the components present in the wheat kernel after milling the whole
ZKHDW,WLVXVHGIRUEDNLQJSURGXFWVWKDWUHTXLUHDGDUNHUFRORUDQG
DKLJKHUOHYHORIGLHWDU\¿EHU
The Chorleywood Bread Process
$KLJKSHUFHQWDJHRIWKHÀRXULVXVHGIRUVDQGZLFKEUHDGSURGXFWLRQ6RXWK$IULFDQFRQVXPHUVH[SHFWDQDWWUDFWLYHYROXPHD¿QH
and even texture, a soft, light-colored crumb and a shelf-life of 6
to 8 days.
Sandwich bread is mainly produced by industrial bakeries, usLQJWKH&KRUOH\ZRRG%UHDG3URFHVV&%37KLVPHWKRGGHYHORSHGLQ(QJODQGLQLVFKDUDFWHUL]HGE\WZRPDLQEHQH¿WVD
large proportion of lower-protein wheat may be used in the grist,
DQGWKHHQWLUHSURFHVVIURPPL[LQJWRWKH¿QLVKHGORDIRQO\WDNHV
DERXWWZRKRXUV,IVXEVHTXHQWFRROLQJVOLFLQJDQGZUDSSLQJDUH
LQFOXGHGWKHDYHUDJHSURGXFWLRQWLPHLVKRXUV%\FRQWUDVW
March 2021 / World Grain / World-Grain.com


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World Grain - March 2021

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