World Grain - November 2021 - 26

FLOUR FORTIFICATION: subsequent improvement of the iron
For more than 20 years, the Indonesian
government has been making
efforts to improve the supply of essential
micronutrients to the population
through mandatory flour fortification.
Besides vitamin B1, B2, zinc
and folic acid, the premixes must
contain iron.
Nevertheless, the original wording
of the law does not include explicit
requirements concerning the chemical
formula for the iron. As a result,
mills often have used electrolytic
iron, which has the advantage of being
cheap but the disadvantage of
comparatively low bioavailability.
This practice frequently gave rise to
heated discussions with NGOs from
the nutrition sector. In 2017, the Indonesian
Ministry of Health commissioned
a study to evaluate the efficacy
of the different iron compounds. The
result formed the basis for an amendment
to the law: in 2018 it was stipulated
in the National Standard for Fortification
that only the formulations
local consumption, the industrial bakeries in the big
population centers focus on wrapped goods with a longer
shelf life.
The starting material used is mainly wheat from
Canada and the United States. Cost plays an important
role in purchasing. Millers test the mixing ratios
of high-performance and cheaper lots very carefully to
reconcile economy with quality. As a rule, the aim is to
achieve a protein content of 11.5% to 12.5%. Through
fine tuning of the flours with enzymes like amylases
(Alphamalt A 7060), hemicellulases (Alphamalt H
24012), lipases (Alphamalt EFX Tera) and glucose oxidases
(Alphamalt Gloxy 31841), the mills can improve
the baking performance further and adjust it to the specific
requirements of sandwich bread production.
The following is a typical recipe for sandwich bread:
* Flour
* Sugar
* Fat
* Water
* Bread improver
* Instant yeast
* Salt
100%
15% to 20%
5% to 10%
60% to 65%
0.5% to 1.5%
1.5% to 2.5%
0.6% to 0.8%
The high sugar and fat content are characteristic of
Indonesian sandwich bread. These ingredients are not
only flavor carriers; they also have a positive effect on
the texture of the baked products. But in the entry-level
price range they may be replaced with milk and butter
flavorings.
For the production of sandwich loaves, big manufacturers
prefer the " sponge and dough " method; this is
said to contribute to aroma formation and water binding
through the use of a pre-dough fermented for several
hours. In the Sulawesi region, industrial bakeries
use so-called " dough breakers " for making the dough.
In this method, the doughs are worked intensively on
a special roller system, which results in a highly stable
gluten network and extremely even distribution of the
carbon dioxide bubbles, thus increasing the volume of
26
recommended by the World Health
Organization - ferrous fumarate, ferrous
sulphate or NaFeEDTA - were
to be used in flour fortification.
These compounds are absorbed
more readily by the human organism
and are therefore a more effective
weapon in the fight against anaemia.
After a transition period of several
years, the new regulation came into
effect on Aug. 4, 2021. Any remaining
stocks of flour fortified with electrolytic
iron may still be sold within a year.
the loaves and enhancing the grain. A fine, even texture
is essential for sandwich loaves to ensure that the
crumb does not become soggy even with juicy dressings
and fillings.
The appearance of the loaves is another parameter
relevant to quality. Concave sides are an absolute nogo;
sandwich and toast loaves must have a regular, rectangular
shape without sidewall collapse.
Although some Indonesian bakery products are thoroughly
colored bright green with the juice of pandan
leaves, the crumb of a loaf must usually be a clear
white. The standard flours have an ash content between
0.5% and 0.55%. To brighten the flour by natural
means, enzyme-active lentil flour such as LENTInovo
can be added to the wheat flour.
Shelf life: the cardinal question
At present, the biggest talking point in the Indonesian
baking industry is the shelf life of the bread. Consumers
expect pan loaves to have a shelf life of at least a week.
But in a country with over 7,000 inhabited islands, distribution
of the wrapped industrial loaves presents an
enormous challenge. Depending on the region and the
logistics chain, it can take several days for the loaves to
reach the market shelves for sale.
To meet consumer demand for soft, fresh bread, two
aspects have to be taken into account. The microbiological
shelf life can be extended by using preservatives
such as calcium propionate. Moreover, the microbial
spoilage of food can be delayed by reducing the aw
(Activity of Water) with additives that have hygroscopic
properties, such as glucose, saccharose or sorbitol.
The decision on use of these additives and ingredients
is made at the bakeries.
However, the sensory impression of freshness is
equally important. This is where the mills can make
an effective contribution to keeping the baked foods
soft and succulent for a longer period. With innovative
freshness enzymes like Alphamalt Fresh 30303, it is
no problem to prolong the soft, fluffy chewing feel of
sandwich and toast bread by one to two weeks.
November 2021 / World Grain / World-Grain.com
http://www.World-Grain.com

World Grain - November 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of World Grain - November 2021

World Grain - November 2021 - Intro
World Grain - November 2021 - 1
World Grain - November 2021 - 2
World Grain - November 2021 - 3
World Grain - November 2021 - 4
World Grain - November 2021 - 5
World Grain - November 2021 - 6
World Grain - November 2021 - 7
World Grain - November 2021 - 8
World Grain - November 2021 - 9
World Grain - November 2021 - 10
World Grain - November 2021 - 11
World Grain - November 2021 - 12
World Grain - November 2021 - 13
World Grain - November 2021 - 14
World Grain - November 2021 - 15
World Grain - November 2021 - 16
World Grain - November 2021 - 17
World Grain - November 2021 - 18
World Grain - November 2021 - 19
World Grain - November 2021 - 20
World Grain - November 2021 - 21
World Grain - November 2021 - 22
World Grain - November 2021 - 23
World Grain - November 2021 - 24
World Grain - November 2021 - 25
World Grain - November 2021 - 26
World Grain - November 2021 - 27
World Grain - November 2021 - 28
World Grain - November 2021 - 29
World Grain - November 2021 - 30
World Grain - November 2021 - 31
World Grain - November 2021 - 32
World Grain - November 2021 - 33
World Grain - November 2021 - 34
World Grain - November 2021 - 35
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World Grain - November 2021 - 37
World Grain - November 2021 - 38
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World Grain - November 2021 - 84
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